Field and variety selection and stand density
The desired moisture content of the grain is about 10% lower than with traditional silage maize. That is why it is important to be able to sow early and harvest late. The plot can be used both early and late in the season is a major asset. High demands must be made on the moisture supply, since the grain formation and the grain yield react strongly to moisture deficiency, especially during the flowering period. The structural condition of the soil must be optimal; waterlogging can cause both flooding and water shortage. Soils that are sensitive to night frost are also not suitable for growing grain maize.
In the case of grain maize, in addition to the grain yield and the moisture content of the grain, the bearing strength and resistance to stem rot are of great importance. Timely sowing is very important for early maturity and grain yield; if possible, sow around April 20. Late sowing (after 5 May) is detrimental to the yield and ripening. The most appropriate stand density is 80,000 to 90,000 plants per hectare. At a higher stand density, the bearing strength and grain maturation are usually adversely affected and the cob formation is poorer. With an average field emergence of 85 to 90%, a sowing of 95,000 to 105,000 seeds/ha is thus desirable.
For small varieties, however, a higher standing density usually leads to a higher yield. If such varieties have good lodging resistance and good resistance to stem rot, it makes sense to increase the sowing density to 110,000 - 120,000 grains/ha to arrive at a planting number of 100,000 - 110,000 plants/ha. Sometimes silage maize varieties are used for grain maize. In general, they are less suitable than grain maize varieties described above.
In connection with the choice of varieties and the cultivation method, it is very important to determine before sowing whether ready-to-use or grain maize will be grown. If the choice cannot be made in advance, it is advisable to focus the selection of varieties and cultivation on grain maize.